Dive Leader
Theory Lessons

Dive Leader Training


The Role of Dive Leader DT1

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) DT2

Oxygen and Diving Incidents DT3

Casualty Assessment DT4

Oxygen Administration Equipment DT5

Oxygen Administration in Practice DT6

Use of Oxygen Administration Equipment DT7

Dive Planning DT8

Rescue Management Part 1 DT9

Helicopter Operations DT10

Rescue Management Part 2 DT11

The Role of Dive Marshall DT12

The Role of Dive Leader - Theory Lesson DT1

  • Lesson Objectives
    • The main objective of the lesson is to introduce students to the role of the Dive Leader and the continued development of diving and dive leading skills.
      This lesson covers consideration of different of types of diving, including risk assessment and safeguards. These will all support the broader role a Dive Leader will be able to take in a branch by being able to marshal dives at known dive sites.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Understand that the development of diving skills and knowledge involves extending their own experience in depth and varied conditions
    • Understand that when there is no available assistance from a more experienced diver, developing their own skills with a diver of equal experience, needs to be done incrementally and carefully, to build on existing experience as safely as possible
    • Understand that assessment and precautions taken for various types of dive are not only important in dive planning, but will also support considerations when undertaking the role of a Dive Marshal to known dive sites

    Return to Top

    Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) - Theory Lesson DT2

  • Lesson Objectives
    • Rescue skills are, fortunately, the skills least frequently used by a diver. The down side of this is that they deteriorate the fastest and hence may no longer be adequate if required in a real emergency. Periodic refresher training is therefore essential to keep these skills practised.
      Although CPR skills are learned during Sports Diver training, some time will have elapsed since then so this lesson provides refresher training as well as extending CPR skills to include the use of the 'Pocket' style mask.
      Ocean Divers may also undertake training in oxygen administration, and hence the scope and content of this lesson is also appropriate to those who have had no previous training in CPR skills. The lesson first reviews the principles of CPR, which then acts as a briefing to the instructor demonstration and student practice that follow.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Understand the underlying principles of CPR
    • Be competent and confident in their ability to perform one rescuer CPR
    • Be competent and confident in their ability to perform two rescuer CPR
    • Be competent and confident in their ability to deal with regurgitation of the casualty's stomach contents
    • Be competent and confident in their ability to place the casualty in the recovery position
    • Be competent and confident in their ability to perform two rescuer CPR using a 'Pocket' style mask.
  • Following items will be needed
    • For each pair of students. Where this is not available, the duration of the practical element of the lesson should be extended pro rata, so that each student experiences the specified periods of practice. It is important that students experience what it is like to carry out CPR for more than just a token period, and hence the duration of practice should not be truncated.

    Return to Top

    Oxygen and Diving Incidents - Theory Lesson DT3

  • Lesson Objectives
    • If oxygen administration is to be effective, it is necessary to understand what conditions can benefit from it and how to recognise them. Understanding how oxygen provides a benefit to each condition will also aid the later understanding of equipment requirements to achieve this.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Understand what oxygen is
    • Understand what conditions resulting from diving incidents can benefit from oxygen administration
    • Be able to recognise the relevant signs and symptoms of those conditions
    • Understand how the administration of oxygen benefits each of those conditions

    Return to Top

    Casualty Assessment - Theory Lesson DT4

  • Lesson Objectives
    • The previous lesson covered the major diving incidents and their signs and symptoms. This lesson supplements this with a structured and practical approach to assessing a casualty's condition. It reinforces the need to recognise the sometime subtle signs and symptoms of diving incidents and provides a normal basis against which to judge them.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Understand how to conduct a basic assessment of a casualty suffering from a diving incident
    • Understand the need for continual monitoring of the casualty to update the assessment if signs and symptoms change.
  • Following items will be needed
    • In addition to the visual aids used for the initial explanation, copies of the Incident Procedure and pens/pencils will be required for all students to use in the subsequent practical exercise.

    Return to Top

    Oxygen Administration Equipment - Theory Lesson DT5

  • Lesson Objectives
    • There are many different types of oxygen administration equipment available. Not all equipment is suitable both for recreational diver use and for use in the diving environment. This lesson explains the configuration of oxygen administration equipment which is appropriate for recreational diving use and explains some of the associated operating considerations.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Understand the configuration of oxygen administration equipment most suitable for use by recreational divers in the diving environment
    • Understand the characteristics of each of the component items
    • Understand equipment maintenance requirements
    • Be aware of precautions to take when using oxygen administration equipment.
  • Following items will be needed
    • In addition to the visual aids, a dismantled oxygen set will be required to illustrate each component, as required during the lesson, to show the 'real thing

    Return to Top

    Oxygen Administration in Practice - Theory Lesson DT6

  • Lesson Objectives
    • Administering oxygen to a casualty is not just a question of operating the necessary equipment. There are other considerations that need to be taken into account to ensure that the maximum benefit is achieved. This lesson presents guidance on these wider aspects.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should understand:
    • The practicalities of administering oxygen in the event of a diving incident
    • The complimentary role of fluid administration
    • How to arrange evacuation of the casualty
    • The immediate considerations in the case of missed decompression, and where to get specialist advice on further action
    • Why the administration of Entonox should be avoided
    • Appropriate safety precautions and limitations

    Return to Top

    Use of Oxygen Administration Equipment - Theory Lesson DT7

  • Lesson Objectives
    • This lesson provides practical instruction in the use of oxygen administration equipment for both breathing and non breathing casualties. Although practical, it builds on skills and underpinning knowledge covered in the previous lessons.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Be competent and confident in their abilities to assemble/disassemble oxygen administration equipment
    • Be competent and confident in their abilities to administer oxygen to a breathing casualty suffering from decompression illness
    • Be competent and confident in their abilities to administer CPR, including oxygen enriched artificial ventilation, to a non-breathing casualty with no circulation
  • Following items will be needed
    • For each pair of students the following equipment is required:
    • A resuscitation manikin
    • An oxygen administration set conforming to the configuration described in the "Oxygen Administration Equipment" lesson (DT5).
    • Where there are more pairs of students than the number of manikins/oxygen administration sets available, the duration of the practical element of the lesson should be extended pro rata, so that each student experiences the specified periods of practice. The duration of practice is very important in not just achieving but consolidating the skill level, and hence should not be truncated.

    Return to Top

    Dive Planning - Theory Lesson DT8

  • Lesson Objectives
    • The objectives of this lesson are to highlight the importance of planning as a Dive Marshal when organising diving to Branch known dive sites. Although planning should occur before all diving, the lesson introduces the students to the considerations that need to be made before arriving on a dive site. This includes the organisation of divers and equipment but also introduces students to charts. The information that can be obtained from charts and tide tables helps, not only with anticipating conditions but supports the use of electronic navigation equipment and/or transits that a branch may use for known sites.
      As most diving is weather dependent, listening to weather forecasts is also part of planning before leaving for the dive site
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students will:
    • Understand that dive planning considers five main areas; the dive objectives, the divers involved, the proposed dive site, the date and time to dive, and what extra equipment is needed to support the objectives
    • Understand the responsibilities of the Dive Marshal
    • Understand the suitability of a site for the dive objectives and levels of diver experience
    • Understand that known sea sites will still require planning and information to locate the site
    • Understand latitude and longitude and their relevance to charts and use of GPS for position fixing
    • Understand how to read a chart in combination with Chart 5011 to identify relevant features on or near the dive site
    • Understand the principle of transits for fixing the position of the dive site
    • Determine the difference between chart datum and actual depths on the day of the dive with the use of Tide tables
    • Understand the use of tidal diamonds on a chart tidal flow diamond to determine the time of slack water
    • Understand the use of the compass rose
    • Understand the effect of wind, the sea state and the importance of monitoring weather before diving
  • Following items will be needed
    • A chart, preferably covering a known branch dive site
    • A copy of Chart 5011
    • If available, Branch Dive Marshal pack with information on transits if used, dive site details, check list before leaving for the dive site etc.

    Note: For instructors presenting this lesson outside the UK, they should substitute the UK based information with local corresponding information and procedures.

    Return to Top

    Rescue Management Part 1 - Theory Lesson DT9

  • Lesson Objectives
    • Previous training has addressed personal rescue techniques, which have been progressively expanded from Ocean Diver, through Sports Diver and into Dive Leader. If an incident is to be resolved effectively, the activities of all the individuals involved to be co-ordinated. Managing this effort is part of the wider role of the Dive Leader. This lesson introduces rescue management and is supplemented by further practical and classroom lessons (DT10, DT11 and D05).
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should understand:
    • That rescue management starts long before an incident occurs
    • The long term factors that contribute to incident prevention
    • The factors occurring on site that enable potential incidents to be anticipated
    • The activities which contribute to the overall resolution of an incident
    • The need for activities to be co-ordinated - the role of the Rescue Manager

    Return to Top

    Helicopter Operations DT10 - Theory Lesson DT10

  • Lesson Objectives
    • In incidents requiring urgent evacuation of the casualty, helicopters are often used. This lesson explains some of implications for divers of operating in close proximity to helicopters, and outlines the possible techniques that may be used to transfer the casualty from a boat to a helicopter.
    • Note: Outside the UK helicopter techniques may vary, and in some parts of the world diving may be carried out outside the coverage of helicopter operations. For courses run in such locations, instructors should adapt these lesson notes by substituting evacuation techniques appropriate to the local geographical area.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should understand:
    • Actions necessary to prepare a boat for operating close to a helicopter
    • The considerations of operating a boat in close proximity to a helicopter
    • The different lifting techniques that may be employed by the helicopter crew to transfer a casualty
      from a boat to a helicopter:

    •       Direct lift
            High-line transfer
            
    • Alternative small boat technique
    • The need to obey all signals from the helicopter crew

    Return to Top

    Rescue Management Part 2 - Theory Lesson DT11

  • Lesson Objectives
    • This lesson complements the earlier lesson 'Rescue Management Part 1' and the Open Water lesson 'Rescue Management Scenarios'. It covers aspects which could not be adequately included in the Open Water lesson and other aspects which follow on after an incident.
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students should:
    • Understand the potential impact of an incident on relatives and friends of the casualty, and on the rescuers themselves
    • Appreciate how to deal with the media
    • Understand the important role of the incident report
    • Understand the legal processes which follow on from an incident resulting in a fatality
    • Understand what they can do to best serve those processes

    Return to Top

    The Role of Dive Marshall - Theory Lesson DT12

  • Lesson Objectives
    • The objectives of this lesson are to complete the students understanding of the practical considerations when dive marshalling. From DT8, Dive Planning, this lesson extends the planning, risk assessment and organisation prior to the dive day.
    • The lesson also covers shot lines and diving emergencies
  • Achievement Targets
    At the end of this lesson students will:
    • Understand that the role of the Dive Marshal for branch known dive sites encompasses the initial planning, risk assessment and organisation to support their supervisory role on the day and their responsibility for all diving and related activities
    • Understand that a Dive Marshal does not work alone but with the support of the Diving Officer, Assistant Dive Marshal, Cox'n or Skipper, the divers and the surface cover to make it happen on the day
    • Understand the actions to take as a Dive Marshal before leaving home
    • Understand the considerations when marshalling branch known dive sites from the shore or small boats
    • Understand the considerations when marshalling branch known dive sites if using a charter boat
    • Understand the principles and configuration of simple and top tensioned shot lines
    • Understand the principles of shot recovery using a buoyant or controlled lift
    • Understand the actions to take in diving emergencies
    • Have gained appreciation of further training opportunities open to them within the BSAC to develop diving skills even further
    • Understand that it is important as Dive Leaders to go diving to continue the development of their own skills and diving enjoyment
  • Following items will be needed
    • Branch Dive Marshal pack. Samples of branch dive sheets or slates used on branch dives

    Note: The instructor should relate parts of the lesson, where applicable, to known branch dive sites that students will be familiar with as divers, and possibly, as ADMs.

    Return to Top